What Will Happen to Your Brain While You Are on the Way to Mars

Human On Mars
Initial studies indicate that it does not bode well.

NASA aspires to send a manned flight to Mars during the next twenty years, but a study indicated that it will be more dangerous than we expect, new data showed that exposure to cosmic radiation for long periods may greatly affect seriously the cognitive and cognitive abilities of astronauts.

University of California researchers in Irvine, USA simulated the conditions of deep space on a group of mice in the laboratory by exposing them to explosions of accelerated particles, which are similar to cosmic waves. The results indicated that the radiation-exposed mice were disorganized and frequently forgotten, in addition to the fact that their response and reaction so slow.

“It is not good news for the pioneers who were allegedly sent to Mars on a two-way trip for two to three years,” says Charles Limoli, a radiotherapy professor at a press conference, and adds: “a decrease in performance, a deficit in memory, loss of consciousness and focus during the trip All of this may affect the mission’s primary tasks, as well as the fact that long-term exposure to these particles may have severe consequences for lifelong perception.

Cosmic rays, a product of galactic eruptions like a supernova, are highly charged particles that can easily penetrate the shuttle’s structure and human bones and cause massive damage to the central nervous system of the body.

On our planet, the magnetosphere guarantees the protection of the Earth’s surface from this dangerous radiation, but the thin atmosphere of Mars cannot protect its surface in that quality, just as the Earth’s magnetosphere extends to about 56,000 km above our heads, meaning that it also protects the astronauts from the cosmic radiation.

In a study, published on Science Avances conducted at NASA’s Space Radiation Laboratory by the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, a group of genetically engineered mice suffered burns due to a bundle of oxygen ions and titan accelerated at two-thirds of the speed of light, the same type of ions found in cosmic rays. Hungarian.

These mice were genetically modified to possess radioactive neurons, making it easier to monitor changes in the level of their brains.

Six weeks after exposure, mice lost from 30 to 40 percent of their dendrites – the branches between the neurons responsible for transmitting electrical signals – compared to the reference group.

Exposure to cosmic radiation leads to permanent deterioration of neuronal ramifications, this deficiency is associated with mental disorders such as in those who suffer from Alzheimer’s or similar neurological diseases.

Cognitive and cognitive tests were then performed on both groups, and new bodies were added among those familiar to mice. It was observed that those exposed to radiation were disorganized and lost their curiosity compared to the reference group.

If astronauts do the same, their response speed and their ability to retrieve information will be affected.

During the alleged trip to Mars that will last from two to three years, any effect of exposure to cosmic radiation will find the time to appear, the ability of the astronauts to complete the task and do research experiments in addition to their health of their knowledge, all of this will be in danger, Limoli and his team do not think that That level of turmoil will lead astronauts to destroy their shuttle, but at least sabotage their experiences.

The brain is a complex organ and long-term studies are required before we understand the full effect of cosmic rays on it, and we can separate by saying whether these disorders and changes observed in mice are chronic or not.


What Would Happen If You Shot a Bullet Back While Moving Forward at the Same Speed

gun with bullet coming out
Supposing you move at a speed of 300 km/h, and for some reason, you decide to hit a target, you take out a pistol and point your back.

In this case, you are aiming in the opposite direction of your movement and supposing that the bullet also moved at your same speed.

So, you are moving forward at 300 km/h, and the bullet was fired at the same speed in the opposite direction.

What will happen to the bullet for you?

There are different answers to this question depending on specific circumstances. The short answer, however, is the following:

– You are traveling on a specified path at a speed of 300 km/h, and let’s say it is the speed “y”.

– The bullet fired in the opposite direction at a speed of 300 km/h, so we call it minus y. “- y.”

– So you are traveling at a speed of y, and a shot was shot at a speed of ‘-y’.

– This means that – Y + Y = 0, so the bullet should drop straight down, that’s right, once you hit the trigger the bullet will collapse immediately.

But in reality, the issue is more complicated than this
First, even if the bullet moves at an average of 300 km/h, it needs some time to reach this speed.

When you press the trigger the projectile will not gain this speed at once, but it needs some time to accelerate, so when you press the trigger the bullet will accelerate in the gap of the pistol until you later reach the speed of “-y” and cancel the effect of your “speedy” movement, so in reality, it will not fall The bullet directly, but it will move a small distance from the point from which it was fired.

This answer also does not take into account air resistance, and of course, there is air resistance, besides that the bullet will rotate inside the pistol gap.

Resisting the air and spinning inside the pistol’s bore will prevent it from going completely straight forward, and you will end up staying inside the pistol groove, that is, you will not fall from it.
Read More:

What Would Happen If We Consumed All Sources of Fossil Fuels

What If We Replaced Daily Drinks With Water

What Happens If a Nuclear Bomb Explodes in Space

What Would Happen If the Sun Disappeared One Week?


What Would Happen If We Consumed All Sources of Fossil Fuels

Fossil Fuels
The mere thought of this question is awe in our minds, although we have been aware of the seriousness of global warming for a relatively long time, governments have not pursued protective policies until recently, even companies that supply us with energy are still looking for other sources of fuel.
Will our dear planet withstand this catastrophe?

How does global warming happen?

When burning fossil fuels, carbon dioxide and other gases are released into the atmosphere.
These gases accumulate in the atmosphere, and they are called greenhouse gas, because they absorb the sun’s rays from the surface, preventing them from leaving the atmosphere. The climate translates those rays into heat, and thus our summer becomes hotter than before.

If we continue to burn fossil fuels, greenhouse gases will accumulate in the atmosphere more and more, which means absorbing more of these rays and allowing our planet to absorb more heat.

Land and ocean currently absorb much of the fossil fuel burning waste.

But in one new study, the effect of burning 5,000 gigatons, the estimated stock of fossils on nature, has been investigated, and researchers have found very frightening results.

Researchers expect the Earth to be able to absorb carbon until about the year 2100, but at this point, the Earth will be saturated with carbon dioxide, and you will not be able to absorb more.

The oceans will have less capacity to absorb emissions, which will push most of these emissions into the atmosphere.

Also, extremely high temperatures will limit the growth of plants in the tropics.

By the year 2300, scientists expect that the rise in temperature will be between 6.4 to 9.5 degrees, and between 15 and 20 degrees in the Arctic.

In addition, there will be a noticeable change in the rate of precipitation, as it will increase in frequency in certain areas.

Other studies suggest that global warming resulting from the burning of the entire fossil stockpile will cause entire ice to melt in Antarctica, thereby increasing sea level by about 200 feet, i.e. dumping most major cities in the world.

As governments talk about keeping global warming less than 2 degrees Celsius, energy companies continue to search for places and other sources to extract hydrocarbons.

At this point, it is never clear which future lies ahead. But in any case, do not panic now, the effect of global warming will not start with one night.

Fortunately for us, energy production with renewable sources such as wind, water, and the sunlight is developing well.


What If We Replaced Daily Drinks With Water

Replace Daily Drinks With Water
A new study found that drinking a glass of water instead of drinking a glass of beer or soft drinks once a day can reduce your risk of obesity.

What If We Replaced Daily Drinks With Water

The researchers followed nearly 16,000 adults in Spain for about 8 and a half years and none of them had obesity, and during the study 900 people were obese.

The study found that drinking a glass of water instead of drinking a cup of beer reduces the risk of obesity by 20%, and if you drink it instead of soft drinks, the risk decreases to 15%.

For those who replaced beer with water, some had a complete weight loss of 0.7 pounds over 4 years.

The study was unable to find a direct link between cause and effect, but researchers also studied the effect of other factors such as family history, age, and physical activity.

The researchers also found that replacing the rest of the drinks with water had no effect on reducing obesity, and the list included: whole milk and low-fat milk, wine, diet soft drinks, coffee, orange juice, and other juices, as replacing these drinks with water did not have any effect.

The research team was led by Ujue Fresan, from the Institute of Biomedicine in Barcelona.


What Would Happen If a Solar Storm Hit Us

This is what would happen if our planet was hit by a solar storm and ended the age of technology as we know it today:

First, let us rejoice because the greatest solar storm that struck Earth in recorded history was at a time when our human civilization was not greatly susceptible to the anger of solar radiation.

In the Carrington incident, known as the (Solar Storm of 1859), a burning mass was seen emanating from the sun towards the Earth’s magnetic sheath, creating a massive magnetic storm that had not been witnessed before in modern civilization.

He collided with the geomagnetic atmosphere a barrage of charged particles that lit up the sky of the world in a phenomenon known as the (Aurora), but with strong electric currents that swept the world, the telegraph systems covering Europe and North America were cut off and sparked sparks from the telegraph devices, causing damage Some people were caught in the fire, and even some devices that were disconnected from electricity were still working and sending strangely intermittent messages!

In other words, it was chaotic technological chaos, and from a futuristic view nearly a century and a half away from the accident, you believe that what happened at that time can be easily contained now.

What would happen if a solar storm hit the Earth today?

No one knows for sure how things will go wrong, but given the frightening extent we have reached in our dependence on technological infrastructure and compared to our technological development at the time, it will certainly not be easy.

Perhaps the most important evidence lies in some strange incidents that occurred in the spring of 1989 when many solar storms hit the planet, which led to the emergence of twilight in the sky again, which led some to believe that what they see is only the foggy effects of the Third World War.

However, it was not a nuclear strike until wired signals and space communication systems were disrupted, as the Earth’s magnetosphere absorbed most of the charged particles.

The greatest results were those that occurred in the city of Quebec, Canada, the electricity was cut off by six million people, and the interruption lasted for a few hours for most people, and the rest waited for days until the electricity returned to them naturally.

This type of solar storm is what terrifies scientists in the White House, a majestic solar storm that brings humans back to the Middle Ages.

Solar storms of this huge type strike the Earth nearly every 500 years, and when they strike, they are enough for communications and energy systems to go out of business around the world for days, months or even years, and don’t forget GPS systems, satellites, broadcast services, the Internet, the phone, systems Transportation, drains … etc, and we will not be able to know when the Earth will strike until hours before it happens.

This talk sounds like a film about disaster, but this fact remains and is not science fiction, as conservative estimates indicate that the amount of damage caused will reach $ 2 trillion for the first year only, and with concerted global efforts we will need nearly a decade to recover from the effects of this ordeal.

On the other side, more extreme, others estimate the size of the losses at $ 20 trillion, which will cause us to reassess the risk of destruction caused by space disasters.

Astrophysicist Abraham Loeb of Harvard University to Today Today explained that: “In the past, most attention has focused on space hazards on asteroids that might hit Earth. In the past decade, we haven’t had the same technological infrastructure that we have today, and technology today Growing rapidly, so the damage will be asymmetric between past and present. ”

In the best-case scenario, the strike will only result in distortions in communications systems, but history shows that potential interference in the wrong type of technology system may have devastating consequences, such as moving the world to the brink of a nuclear war.

According to Francis O’Sullivan (Director of Energy Research at the MIT Institute) told CNN: “An event similar to what happened in Carrington may be catastrophic if it happens tomorrow, the lamps are not the only ones that will be extinguished, bank accounts will disappear, if you can imagine what would happen if the stock market stopped For a week or a month, or did the connections stop for a week or a month? You will know that this will be the greatest disaster facing the entire world. ”


What Happens If a Nuclear Bomb Explodes in Space

Nuclear Bomb Explodes in SpaceThe “Mushroom Cloud” image is one of the most well known and terrifying scenes too. Although nuclear threats have declined over the past decades, there was a time in the twentieth century when fascination and fear of nuclear weapons caused everyone around the world to do somewhat insane matters.

The countries of the world that possess nuclear weapons (especially Russia and the United States of America) have tested these weapons underwater, in the mountains, in the air, and even in space!

Maybe we can imagine what these explosions will look like, and what their impact will be, but what about the last explosion? What would happen if a nuclear bomb exploded in space?

During the most dramatic stages of the Cold War, Russia and the United States were testing nuclear bombs in all directions, and all eyes were watching the sky because of the fear of a wide-ranging nuclear weapon, or nuclear warheads guided by satellites.

The United States launched a series of tests, codenamed “Fishbowl Project” which was a high-level nuclear weapons test.

“Starfish Prime” was the most surprising and historic test of this project. On the ninth day of July 1962, a 1.4 megaton nuclear bomb exploded, approximately 250 miles above the ground.

What would happen if a nuclear bomb exploded in space?

First, there was no cloud of a mushroom in its typical form or even a burst wave due to the absence of an atmosphere in space (this causes most of the damage to the planet as a result of a nuclear bomb explosion).

Instead, there was a tremendous flow of heat and light, and not only that but rather high-intensity radiation in the form of gamma and X-rays produced without an atmosphere impeding their path. The explosion took a spherical shape, and the wave of radiation and light expanded to illuminate the sky.

On the surface of our planet, it was possible to see bright twilight lights thousands of miles away minutes after the explosion, because the charged particles from the explosion had immediately started interacting with the Earth’s magnetic field.

It can be imagined in the form of the “Aurora Borealis”, more commonly known as the Northern Lights, but it has spread kilometers over the Pacific Ocean. The streaks of light and the flow of charged particles would last for hours and even days after the explosion (depending on its size).

Also in the nuclear explosion, there is a small portion of the debris that can ignite in the Earth’s outer atmosphere, and heavy ions absorbed by the atmosphere’s particles. But in fact, these additional radioactive particles are useful in certain ways (to this day), and we’ll explain that in the next paragraph.

Are there other effects of a nuclear bomb exploding in space?

Perhaps the most disturbing thing about the enormous amount of radiation that will collide with the Earth’s atmosphere is the effect of the explosion on the electromagnetic signals within a huge area beneath the explosion.

These high-charge, fast-moving electrons will form a small but extremely powerful magnetic field, called an “Electromagnetic Pulse” (EMP).

Arguably you have seen this more than once in science fiction movies; the electromagnetic pulse bomb cuts all electronic communication within a specific space (almost the most famous example of this is the Matrix movie).

In the case of the aforementioned “Sea Star” test, the force of the explosion caused blackouts hundreds of miles away in Hawaii, damage to street lights, malfunctions of radars and navigation systems, and a complete cessation of electronic communications.

Hawaiian residents may have taken it as an unintended consequence, but it showed scientists and researchers the power that a nuclear bomb had exploded in space.

It can damage the infrastructure of a country without even destroying it financially. Now put in your account the size of the bomb used in the “Sea Star” test, which is 1.4 megatons.

Knowing that some of the largest nuclear warheads that were built were hydrogen bombs with a capacity of 50 megaton tons, which means that they are 35 times stronger.

Now imagine the number of lights of the aurora borealis that you could see if a bomb of this force exploded in space, and think about the large-scale technological devastation caused by an electromagnetic pulse large enough to completely disable Texas!

Ultimately, for the long-term effects of a nuclear weapon exploding in space, the radioactive materials that fall into the atmosphere will not go anywhere. But in reality, it will fade across the entire planet.

We can now accurately measure these additional molecules resulting from a nuclear explosion, as a way to know the history of things like trees, wine, and animals.

While this can be a useful thing about nuclear tests in space, it does not make the process as a whole logical or rational.

A few nuclear detonation tests were conducted at high altitudes during the 1950s and also 1960’s, but in total, more than 2,000 nuclear detonations were performed on the planet between 1945 and 1998.

The picture is clear. Whether this happens on the ground or in space, the news of nuclear explosions is not good at all!


What Would Happen If the Sun Disappeared One Week?

Sun disappear
If you lived in one of the areas exposed to cold and dark winters, long or short, then the sun’s sight in the sky will become one of the pleasures of your daily life. As for the coming of spring, it will become a matter of joy and celebration, because it means giving up thick, annoying coats, and leaving the office before dark.

What Would Happen If the Sun Disappeared One Week?

In its moderate periods, the sun is friendly to the human body, stimulating it to get out of bed in the morning, strengthening its bones with vitamin D, and avoiding it as seasonal depression.

we will be in a state of fatigue, excessive sleepiness, and psychological problems if the sun disappears for a week, and its absence will have great and immediate effects on the planet and its lifetime.

The most significant change will be the transformation of the planet Earth into a very cold dark place, as you did not know before. The process of succession of night and day will also be affected, because it is caused by the continuous rotation of the earth around the sun, forming the system upon which we adjust our calendar, so we determine the hours of the day as those that The parts of the globe that face the sun during its rotation are permeated, and after that evening hours, as these parts move away from facing the sun during the rotation process if the sun disappears, the day will enter the night at night within 8 and a half minutes, which is the time it takes sunlight to reach a surface Earth.

The temperature of the planet will drop within a week to zero degrees Fahrenheit, equivalent to 17.8 degrees Celsius negative, it will be a bitter cold, but not enough to freeze the human race and other life images on the surface of the planet, it will not happen immediately at least! The absence of the sun means stopping the process of photosynthesis, in which the plant converts sunlight into energy that enables it to survive. The death of plants will lose grass-eating animals, the source of their food, which means their death and then the death of carnivores.

It will take a year for the Earth to drop its surface temperature to 100 degrees Fahrenheit below zero, which is equivalent to 73.3 degrees Celsius negative. The ice at this point will be severe enough to eliminate the various species of species with no stable source of energy and heat.

The effects of the absence of the sun for a week will not be confined to the surface of the earth only but will extend to the outer space as well, while the earth spins around its axis, it revolves around the sun, which is 100 times the diameter of the planet, giving it a giant attraction force that forms a center For all planets of the solar system, without this gravity the planets will float in space, making the Earth vulnerable to collision with any other planet, comet or meteorite.
You can read our article about: What would happen if the sun exploded?


What Will Happen to Your Body in Space Without a Space Suit

without space suit
Have you ever wondered what would happen to your body in space without a spacesuit? Will the subject be as dramatic as the movies portray us? Will you explode? Can you survive?

On Earth, we live in a very relaxing environment thanks to the atmosphere that protects us from the sun’s UV rays, regulates our temperature, and maintains appropriate atmospheric pressure.

But the vacuum of space is much more aggressive.

Without this thick atmosphere cover, we would be exposed to all sorts of different dangers.

The most serious risk we face when exposed to outer space is lack of oxygen and peat.

Pemphigoid is the appearance of gas bubbles in the body fluids due to the lack of external air pressure.

The pressure in the vacuum of space is so low that the boiling point of your body fluids becomes lower than your body’s normal temperature (37 ° C), which results in gas bubbles in your body fluids, which may cause you with atrocious risks.

It will swell ugly and may even double in size, but you won’t burst because your skin is stretchy.

Your blood will not boil.

But, of course, you will suffer a great deal of pain and the blood flow inside your body will be hindered.

As we mentioned earlier, the next big danger is hypoxia.

After about 15 seconds, your body will have used all the oxygen inside and you will lose consciousness.

Some of you may think, “But I can hold my breath for minutes!”

The situation in space is a little different from what it is on the ground because of the lack of external pressure, and if you hold your breath in space without a spacesuit, you will be in big trouble.

This is because any extra air will quickly expand and cut your lungs.

After losing consciousness, you’ll usually survive a few minutes maximum before you die.

Of course, there are all those harmful UV rays from the sun that will cause you to have a terrible sunburn.
x-rays - Ultraviolet rays
Ultraviolet rays and other high-energy photons (X-rays and gamma radiation) will also seriously harm your DNA, leading to mutations that may cause cancer (if you survive later), if you are in space close to the sun, from Venus’s side Or Mercury, for example.

If you were in the cold space of Jupiter and Saturn, it would not freeze immediately as the vacuum would cause heat to move away from your body very slowly.

What Will Happen to Your Body in Space Without a Space Suit?

So in short, you will swell, burn, lose consciousness, and your lungs will explode.

But do not worry, if you get involved in a difficult situation like this one day, you will have a minute or two minutes to be saved before you die, do not lose hope.


What Will Happen If I Open the Plane Door During the Flight

What Will Happen If I Open the Plane Door During the Flight
Flying causes stress for a variety of reasons, from long lines at airports to children screaming on the plane. Flying provokes us and makes us nervous. If that’s not enough, planes are a perfect filming scene in movies to portray a misfortune.

The media coverage of aviation and terrorism accidents also amplified people’s fear of flying. We look at our fellow travelers that they may lose their minds and try to open a door during the journey, to condemn us all to death.

What will happen if I try to open the plane door during the flight? 

Nothing will happen. Of course, the flight crew will restrain you and arrest you when the plane lands. But nothing will happen to the plane, why? Because you will not be able to open the door; pressure will prevent you from doing so.

Pilot Patrick Smith says: “Think of the plane’s door as a drain gasket fixed to the plane’s internal pressure. Almost all aircraft doors open to the interior. Some of the doors are pulled up towards the ceiling and others open outside but first open inside. “And even a macho person can’t beat the locking strength of doors.”

The pressure inside the cabin is much higher than the pressure outside. So, a person needs to pull the doors with the power of a superhuman. While flying the plane at the fixed height of the flight, the pressure inside the cabin is 0.7 or 0.8 standard air, which equals about 5 to 5.4 kg of force per square inch. This is what you are trying to beat!

Now, you may want to know what happens at low altitudes. As a reminder, this is for science’s sake, so please don’t take it as a personal challenge. Even a difference of 15% ؜ of standard air pressure is considered too strong for a human to overcome. The doors can only be opened when the plane is close to the ground and very close. In the event of an emergency during take-off or landing, it is easy to open doors to release inflatable slides.

If you can open the door in the air, this means that you have more problems. This means that the pressure in the cabin of the plane is low.

The subject can be not dramatic cinematic, but it can be just as deadly as the explosive depressurization which happens when the cabin is damaged as it did in the unfortunate case of Southwest Airlines a few weeks ago. One of the engines exploded, breaking a window and partly pulling a woman out of the cab, and she died from injuries from the engine debris.

The air accelerated out of the cabin due to the high pressure, and the oxygen masks were opened automatically. At low atmospheric pressure, the human body cannot absorb enough oxygen and ultimately dies due to its deficiency.

In the case of Southwest Airlines flight, the pilot, Tammy Joe Schultz, had the skill to make an emergency landing before any of the passengers on the flight were affected by hypoxia. Selfies of the plane showed that almost all of the people were wearing oxygen masks incorrectly. People have to cover their mouths and noses!

Even if you are at a height that allows you to open the door, you will not be able to do that, as the “Cooper blades” device will prevent you. This mechanical device was invented during the 1970s after BD escaped. Cooper is on a plane carrying a large amount of cash hopping from the plane using an umbrella. He managed to open the door because the pilot lowered the cabin pressure first.

You should not be afraid that a passenger will open the door because they are honestly unable to do so, and you should not be afraid of flying in general. In 2017, the safest year in commercial aviation, there were only 10 fatal accidents out of 36.8 million flights!


What Happens to Your Body If You Don’t Get Enough Sun

Enough Sun - Vitamin D
Even if this is not life-threatening, getting out, breathing fresh air, and exposure to sunlight is important to your health, as getting out will give you a good dose of vitamin D.

What happens to your body if you don’t get enough sun?

There are many vitamins that we get from food, but vitamin D is absorbed by your skin by a mechanism known as photosynthesis reaction, which occurs when exposed to sunlight.
If you never go out, you will suffer from a lack of this important nutrient, unless you add it as a supplement to your diet.
It is almost impossible to get the necessary amount of this vitamin through food only.
A few types of food contain vitamin D, and foods containing it contain a small amount of it.
Despite this, some people think that the vitamin D we get from the nutritional supplements is not as good as the vitamin that is made in the presence of sunlight.

But why do we need vitamin D?

Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and it also protects against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Decreased vitamin D levels lead to poor bone health.
The presence of inappropriate amounts of this vitamin has also been linked to multiple sclerosis and prostate cancer.
In addition to getting nutrients, spending time in the sun is important to your overall health and improves your mood.
Sun exposure helps people with seasonal affective disorder.
And not only that, the sun adjusts the nitric oxide in the blood and skin, which lowers blood pressure, which in turn helps reduce the risk of heart disease.
Although exposure to the sun has many benefits, exposure to it is highly harmful.
Aside from sun damage and the burns it causes, high exposure to natural light can harm the skin’s immune system.
Excessive exposure to sunlight can also lead to injury to skin cell membranes, and increase the risk of skin cancer.
UV rays can damage your skin in just 15 minutes, and that’s where we wear sunscreen, hats, and sunglasses.
However, getting out is considered good for you as long as you don’t overdo it.